Sub-Section Category: Level 3

15.1 Emergency Childbirth

A woman may go into labour unexpectedly at a time and place where she is unable to carry out her arrangements for delivery.   It is important to remember that childbirth is a natural process and that the majority of births do not threaten the life of the mother or baby. In most cases there …

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Section 15: Exit outcomes

At the end of this section you should be able to do the following: List childbirth emergencies. Identify the equipment a first aider will need to deliver a baby.

14.7 Crush Injuries

A crush injury occurs when a body part is subjected to a high degree of force or pressure usually by being squeezed between two heavy objects Injuries sustained related to crush wounds include: Internal and external bleeding Bruising Fracture/s Laceration (open wound) Nerve injury Infection Signs and symptoms of crush injuries: Pins and needles of …

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14.2 Abdominal Injuries

Closed injuries: A severe blow to the abdomen without breaking the skin. Open injuries: A foreign object enters the abdomen and opens the abdominal cavity to the outside. Bowel evisceration: Part of the bowel extrudes from the abdominal cavity. Organs of the abdomen Quadrant Organs Contained in Region Right upper Liver, right kidney, colon, pancreas …

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14.6 Oxygen Therapy

Oxygen is essential for cell metabolism and for all normal organ functions. Supplementary oxygen is widely used in emergency medicine.  In the pre-hospital environment high flow oxygen is indicated for use in the following cases: Resuscitation Major trauma Anaphylaxis Major haemorrhage Shock Active convulsions Hypothermia. Oxygen has vasoconstrictive effects on the circulatory system reducing peripheral …

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